Hall, Joseph

Hall, Joseph
SUBJECT AREA: Metallurgy
b. 1789
d. 1862
English ironmaker who invented the wet puddling process.
Hall was a practical man with no theoretical background: his active years were spent at Bloomfield Ironworks, Tipton, Staffordshire. Around 1816 he began experimenting in the production of wrought iron. At that time, blast-furnace or cast iron was converted to wrought iron by the dry puddling process invented by Henry Cort in 1784. In this process, the iron was decarburized (i.e. had its carbon removed) by heating it in a current of air in a furnace with a sand bed. Some of the iron combined with the silica in the sand to form a slag, however, so that no less than 2 tons of cast iron were needed to produce 1 ton of wrought. Hall found that if bosh cinder was charged into the furnace, a vigorous reaction occurred in which the cast iron was converted much more quickly than before, to produce better quality wrought iron, a ton of which could be formed by no more than 21 cwt (1,067 kg) of cast iron. Because of the boiling action, the process came to be known as pig boiling. Bosh cinder, essentially iron oxide, was formed in the water troughs or boshes in which workers cooled their tools used in puddling and reacted with the carbon in the cast iron. The advantages of pig boiling over dry puddling were striking enough for the process to be widely used by the late 1820s. By mid-century it was virtually the only process used for producing wrought iron, an essential material for mechanical and civil engineering during the Industrial Revolution. Hall reckoned that if he had patented his invention he would have "made a million". As luck would have it, the process that he did patent in 1838 left his finances unchanged: this was for the roasting of cinder for use as the base of the puddling furnace, providing better protection than the bosh cinder for the iron plates that formed the base.
1857, The Iron Question Considered in Connection with Theory, Practice and Experience with Special Reference to the Bessemer Process, London.
Further Reading
J.Percy, 1864, Metallurgy. Iron and Steel, London, pp. 670 ff. W.K.V.Gale, Iron and Steel, London: Longmans, pp. 46–50.

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HALL, Joseph — (1574 1656) Joseph Hall, an English bishop and controversialist during the reigns of James I* and Charles I, was an opponent of John Milton, a moral philosopher, and a churchman of some importance. Born in Leicestershire, Hall was educated at the …   Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary

  • Hall, Joseph — ▪ English bishop, philosopher, and satirist born , July 1, 1574, Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire, Eng. died Sept. 8, 1656, Higham, Norfolk  English bishop, moral philosopher, and satirist, remarkable for his literary versatility and innovations …   Universalium

  • HALL, JOSEPH —    bishop first of Exeter and then of Norwich, born at Ashby de la Zouch; was accused of favouring Puritanism, and incurred the enmity of Laud; was sent to the Tower for joining 12 prelates who had protested against certain laws passed in… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Hall, Joseph — (1574 1656)    Divine, b. at Ashby de la Zouche, and ed. at Camb., he entered the Church, and became in 1627 Bishop of Exeter, and in 1641 Bishop of Norwich. He had a chequered career. He accompanied James I. to Scotland in 1617, and was a Deputy …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • Joseph Hall (Politiker) — Joseph Hall Joseph Hall (* 26. Juni 1793 in Methuen, Essex County, Massachusetts; † 31. Dezember 1859 in Boston, Massachusetts) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Zwischen 1833 und 1837 vertrat er den Bundesstaat Maine im …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Lerner — is a North American composer and Communication Analyst Strategist. He began his journey in the world of music through learning the rudimentary and fundamental principals of music through taking private lessons. Later in life, Joseph lerner… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Gale — Infobox Politician name = Joseph Gale width = 120px height = caption = small office = Executive Committee of the Provisional Government of Oregon term start = 1843 term end = 1844 predecessor = position created successor = Second Executive… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Bonomi der Ältere — St. James Kapelle in Packington Hall Joseph Bonomi, zur Unterscheidung von seinem gleichnamigen Sohn der Ältere genannt (* 19. Januar 1739 in Rom; † 9. März 1808 in London), war ein italienischer Architekt u …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Pomeroy Widney — (December 26, 1841 mdash; July 4, 1938) was a polymathic pioneer American physician, medical topographer, scholar educator, clergyman, entrepreneur philanthropist, proto environmentalist, prohibitionist, philosopher of religion, controversial… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Hall (bishop) — Joseph Hall (1 July 1574 8 September 1656), English bishop and satirist, was born at Bristow Park, near Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire.LifeJoseph Hall came of a large family, being one of twelve children born to John Hall, agent in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph P. Ebacher — Joseph P. Ebacher, born June 12, 1921,in Acushnet, Massachusetts, and died December 15, 1974 in Jacobs Prairie, Minnesota. Childhood spent in Amsbury, MA, son of French Canadian immigrants, in a family including sisters; Theresa, Annette (died in …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”